凯瑟琳·桑德森(Katharine Sanderson)tells the story of a 19th century Russian chemist who made contributions across a range of chemistry

到1874年10月,朱莉娅·莱蒙托瓦(Julia Lermontova)成功地捍卫自己的论文时,一方面,全世界的化学博士学位妇女人数就可以一方面。manbetx手机客户端3.0实际上,它们可以用一根手指计算。在德国的哥廷根大学,勒蒙托娃(Lermontova)将塔利(Tally)翻了一番,大概落后芬兰的莉迪亚·塞塞曼(Lydia Sesemann)几个月,后者是苏黎世大学获得化学博士学位的第一位获得化学博士学位的女性。在一个深深的父权制和经常厌恶女性的社会中,勒蒙托娃的成就令人印象深刻。她不仅是第一位获得化学博士学位的俄罗斯妇女,而且还是第一位在德国大学这样做的妇女。

Lermontova’s scientific contributions have largely been forgotten to history, but during her lifetime she was widely respected by her male contemporaries including Dmitri Mendeleev – who asked her to help in ordering elements in his nascent periodic table – and her work on hydrocarbons were an important contribution at the time.

Women in Russia were simply not allowed to study at university

Lermontova和其他科学雄心勃勃的19世纪妇女遇到了对教育的强大障碍:19世纪的男人。在那些日子里,女性只是科学家。要在高级学习中学习,您必须富有,能够为私人学费付费,并为了热爱科学而不是认可您的努力。在许多国家,大学根本不允许妇女学习任何程度。而且,如果妇女想进行研究,找到一个由一个男人领导的实验室,那些认为值得在那里工作的妇女并不容易。然而,俄罗斯确实有启蒙运动的口袋,几位杰出的化学家支持女学生。

Lermontova was born in 1846 to a wealthy family in St Petersburg, and her father was director of the Moscow Cadet Corps. The family lived in Moscow and her parents were wholeheartedly supportive of Julia having a thorough education, engaging the best private tutors. Her interest in chemistry was ignited during her studies, and she applied to study further at Moscow’s Petrovskaia Agricultural College. But she was rejected. Women in Russia were simply not allowed to study at university.

不过,由于与另一个杰出的女人建立了友谊,勒蒙托娃最终实现了她的学术学习的雄心。她遇到了已婚妇女索非亚·科瓦莱维斯卡亚(Sofia Kovalevskaya),她正前往德国寻求自己的学术野心。Kovalevskaya可能只有结婚,因此她不需要父母的允许旅行,从而可以继续前进。Kovalevskaya继续成为一名杰出的数学家。

莱尔蒙托瓦(Lermontova)和门德莱夫(Mendeleev)在海德堡(Heidelberg)首次见面

科瓦莱夫斯卡亚(Kovalevskaya)说服了勒蒙托瓦(Lermontova)的父母让她前往海德堡(Heidelberg),并于1869年到达与这对夫妇在一起。科瓦莱维斯卡亚的说服力也在大学工作,两名妇女能够参加讲座,包括罗伯特·本森(Robert Bunsen)的讲座。Lermontova甚至被接纳为Bunsen的研究实验室。本森被描述为notorious misogynistand even a仇恨女人,因此被允许进入他的实验室是一项成就。

Heidelberg was a hub for Russian scientists, including the great Mendeleev. Gisela Boeck, a historian of chemistry at the University of Rostock in Germany, suggests in the book女性的元素that it was in Heidelberg that Lermontova and Mendeleev first met. While she was working in Bunsen’s labs, Lermontova investigated the platinum metals, probably at Mendeleev’s suggestion according to a 1983关于Lermontova的文章威斯康星大学Sheboygan的夏琳·斯坦伯格(Charlene Steinberg)。这加剧了人们对这一元素的精确原子量的越来越多的知识,并填补了Mendeleev最大成就的差距 - 元素周期表。这些金属都具有相似的化学反应,并且在同一矿石中发现,因此将它们分开是一个棘手的问题。

这至关重要的贡献foundational point in the development of modern chemistry is barely known, but Lermontova’s efforts didn’t end there. Her interests changed to organic chemistry, and she followed Kovalevskaya to the University of Berlin. Here, rather than try the conventional route to university entry, which was almost guaranteed to fail, she went straight to the organic chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann. Again as a private student, she set to work attending his lectures and working in his lab. Hofmann was a formidable and well-respected organic chemist, and appears to have been the first引入心爱的分子模型致化学家的曲目。

在勒蒙托瓦(Lermontova)到那里的时候,霍夫曼(Hofmann)的专业是有机氮化合物。在加入霍夫曼(Hofmann)的几个月内,勒蒙托娃(Lermontova)的研究值得出版。她重新评估了一种称为二苯胺的芳香化合物的结构,该化合物被认为是4,4-二氨基奈唑苯。但是Lermontova表明,二苯胺不是一种具有明显的氮 - 亚硝基双键的偶氮化合物。相反,它是一种杂带化合物,由单个N – N键,4,4-二氨基氢苯苯连接,两个NH组连接。这一发现推翻了先前的法国有机化学家August Laurent和Charles Friedrich Gerhardt的作品。霍夫曼(HofmannChemische Berichte.

Lermontova then turned her attention to the subject of her thesis: diiodomethane. She interrogated this small iodine-bearing compound with a host of aromatic and aliphatic organic molecules. But even this comprehensive body of work wasn’t enough to persuade Berlin University to grant Lermontova her doctorate. Instead she submitted her work to another, more enlightened German university, Göttingen, and in October 1864 Lermontova successfully defended her thesis ‘A contribution to the chemistry of methylene compounds’ and was awarded her doctorate. This made her the first Russian woman to achieve this qualification in chemistry, and the first woman to be awarded it by a German university. Her friend Kovalevskaya had been awarded a doctorate in mathematics just a few months before, also at Göttingen.

Lermontova returned to Russia and was warmly welcomed by many Russian greats of chemistry, including Mendeleev, who elected her to the Russian Chemical Society.她被尊敬,以至于俄罗斯杰出的有机化学家亚历山大·巴特洛夫(Alexander Butlerov)邀请她加入他在圣彼得堡的实验室。家庭职责看到她返回莫斯科,但是她开始与弗拉基米尔·马尔可尼科夫(Vladimir Markovnikov)合作。她在用卤素基团取代的脂肪族化合物上进行了工作,并提出了一种更好的方法来制作1,3-二纤维丙烷。1876年,勒蒙托瓦(Lermontova)慢慢康复,回到圣彼得堡(St Petersburg)与她的老朋友科瓦莱夫斯基(Kovalevskis)住在一起。她现在可以接受巴特洛夫的提议,并加入了他的实验室,深入研究有机化学。

她准备停止实验并离开这个研究领域

在此期间,Lermontova在a saga unpicked by Alexander Rulevof the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Irkutsk. In 1878, Bulterov was at a meeting of the Russian Chemical Society. He spotted some familiar-sounding work reported by Alexandr Eltekov from Kharkov University: a new way to make a group of hydrocarbons. Butlerov spotted that this was the same work Lermontova had undertaken a year before. But rather than claiming ownership of the work, Lermontova instead decided to give up all her research in the area, apart from finishing some experiments she’d already begun. Rulev translates a paper of Lermontova’s from 1878: ‘Taking into account that Mr Eltekov had had this article published, I refused to continue all experiments which I had already begun, but considered however that it was necessary to finish and describe those of them which led me to certain conclusions by this time…’

‘这个片段向我们表明,Yulya准备停止她的实验,并将这一研究领域留给Eltekov。您能为现代化学家提供这种行为的真实示例吗?’他说:“ Yulya的这一举动非常罕见。”“通常,化学家试图自己保留研究领域。”勒蒙托瓦(Lermontova)认为,勒蒙托瓦(Lermontova)是一位非常强大的科学家。

当她回到莫斯科和马尔可夫尼科夫的实验室时,她继续进行化学家的工作继续进行,以取消石油矿床的化学反应。但这并没有持续,最终她放弃了科学工作。作为Kovalevksis的女儿Fufa的教母,以及索非亚·科瓦莱维斯卡亚(Sofia Kovalevskaya)从事自己出色的教学生涯,勒蒙托瓦(Lermontova)发现自己全职照顾FUFA。Kovalevskaya于1891年去世,Lermontova通过了FUFA。

正如勒蒙托娃从化学撤退的那样,她的遗产也是如此。但是,为什么她被遗忘了,为什么勒蒙托娃对化学的贡献不太广为人知?Historians of chemistry Geoff and Marelene Rayner-Canham at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada suggest she was victim of the Matilda effect – where women’s efforts in research have wrongly been attributed to men, even though she was held in high esteem by her contemporaries in Russia. ‘We’re thinking also that – like many women – Lermontova had the imposter syndrome and felt her work was of little consequence,’ Geoff Rayner-Canham comments.

Lermontova, this great of organic chemistry retreated to her family estate, a farm outside Moscow. She died from a stroke in 1919, aged almost 73.

凯瑟琳·桑德森(Katharine Sanderson)是位于英国康沃尔的科学作家